Impact of vitronectin concentration and surface properties on the stable propagation of human embryonic stem cells
© American Vacuum Society 2010
Received: 1 October 2010
Accepted: 14 December 2010
The standard method for culturing human embryonic stem cells (hESC) uses supporting feeder layers of cells or an undefined substrate, MatrigelTM, which is a basement membrane extracted from murine sarcoma. For stem cell therapeutic applications, a superior alternative would be a defined, artificial surface that is based on immobilized human plasma vitronectin (VN), which is an adhesion-mediating protein. Therefore, VN adsorbed to diverse polymer surfaces was explored for the continuous propagation of hESC. Cells propagated on VN-coated tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) are karyotypically normal after >10 passages of continuous culture, and are able to differentiate into embryoid bodies containing all three germ layers. Expansion rates and pluripotent marker expression verified that a minimal VN surface density threshold is required on TCPS. Further exploration of adsorbed VN was conducted on polymer substrates with different properties, ranging from hydrophilic to hydrophobic and including cationic and anionic polyelectrolyte coatings. Despite differing surface properties, these substrates adsorbed VN above the required surface density threshold and were capable of supporting hESC expansion for >10 passages. Correlating wettability of the VN-coated surfaces with the response of cultured hESC, higher cell expansion rates and OCT-4 expression levels were found for VN-coated TCPS, which exhibits a water contact angle close to 65°. Importantly, this simple, defined surface matches the performance of the benchmark Matrigel, which is a hydrogel with highly complex composition.