Journal for Biophysical Chemistry

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Open Access

A review of immobilized antimicrobial agents and methods for testing

  • John-Bruce  D.  Green 1,
  • Timothy  Fulghum 1 and
  • Mark  A.  Nordhaus 1

Published: 7 February 2012


Antimicrobial surfaces for food and medical applications have historically involved antimicrobial coatings that elute biocides for effective kill in solution or at surfaces. However, recent efforts have focused on immobilized antimicrobial agents (iAMA) to avoid toxicity, compatibility and reservoir limitations common to elutable agents. This review critically examines the assorted AMAs reported to have been immobilized with an emphasis around interpretation of antimicrobial testing as it pertains to discriminating between eluting and immobilized agents. Immobilization techniques and modes of antimicrobial action are also discussed.