Interactions of nanobubbles with bovine serum albumin and papain films on gold surfaces
© American Vacuum Society 2011
Received: 10 August 2011
Accepted: 21 September 2011
Nanobubbles formed on monocrystalline gold/water interface by means of the ethanol-to-water solvent exchange were exposed to the solutions of either bovine serum albumin or papain proteins. Both proteins do not change the position of nanobubbles in water, as observed by in situ tapping mode atomic force microscopy imaging before and after the introduction of the protein. The aqueous environment was subsequently replaced by ethanol. While all nanobubbles were found to dissolve in ethanol in the presence of bovine serum albumin, most of them survived when papain was employed. The protective ability of papain was ascribed to its resistance towards the protein denaturation in aqueous solutions of ethanol. The authors employed in situ atomic force nanolithography to investigate the nanomorphology of the papain/nanobubble assemblies in ethanol.