a) Detection of norovirus virus-like particles (VLP) by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF).
a) Schematic representation of the sandwich assay setup. The particles are captured onto a bilayer containing 10% H type 1 glycosphingolipids (GSL) recognizing the VLPs with high specificity. The fluorescent signal is generated by TIRF illumination of the sensor-bound rhodamine-labeled vesicles containing 5% H type 1 GSL. b) A representative microscopy image of surface-bound vesicles i) on a bilayer incubated with 12.5 pM VLPs and ii) on a negative control performed in absence of VLPs. Scale bars: 50 μm.