Equilibrium fluctuation analysis of vesicle – virus-like particle (VLP) interactions. a) Equilibrium surface coverage (n
eq) vs. time. b) number of newly arrived vesicles (n
+) vs. time. The insert illustrates that individual binding events are recorded. c) Residence time (Δτ) distribution of the newly arrived vesicles. d) Dissociation plot displaying the number of vesicles still bound vs. time. In all cases a positive signal recorded on a substrate incubated with 12.5 pM VLPs (red) is compared to a negative control performed in absence of the VLPs (blue).