A schematic of several of the methods used to prepare biological cells for ToF-SIMS analysis. Cells can either be analyzed following dehydration, or can be analyzed frozen-hydrated with incorporated water still present. Cells can be dried either by chemical fixation and air drying, or plunge-frozen and freeze-dried. Additionally, frozen cells can either be analyzed whole, or following freeze-fracture. The green boxes represent methods that were evaluated in this work.